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All Issues. Giants Download Survey. Reconstruction Awards Enter Today! Building Team Awards Enter Today! May , NYC. Recent Videos. Technical Glass Products Named 1 Specified. Metal Insights: City National Arena. All Videos Building Science - Sponsored. Situated on the shore of the largest natural lake of glacial origin in France, the Lac du Bourget , this resort is a major French spa town , and has the largest freshwater marina in France.

Although the thermal baths are no longer the main attraction in Aix, the area continues to be draw visitors for water sports and activities. The town has partially compensated for the loss of visitors coming for spa treatments by developing tourism. It hosts up to , general visitors annually, between tourists and people seeking mineral bath therapy.

In addition to thermal baths and tourism, Aix-les-Bains is known for its national Musilac festival. The town is located in a corridor between the mountain of Mont Revard , the first natural rampart of the Massif des Bauges to the east and the Lac du Bourget , the largest natural lake of France to the west. Thus, the city extends mostly on a north-south axis. The area of the commune is The town is traditionally divided into two, the lower town that occupies the banks of the lake to the west and the upper town, where the town centre is located, overlooking the Lac du Bourget.

Native fish can be admired in the aquarium of Aix. The shore, which is occupied by Aix and Tresserve , is highly urbanized and developed along the northeastern part with the road and the railway track. Many restaurants and nightclubs are located there mostly on the southeastern side. A nautical complex was built on its shore, this includes a swimming pool and a beach which has an Art Deco -style main entrance dating from After which is a vast esplanade, allowing walkers to stroll and special events to settle temporarily on this site. It offers, to everyone, a panoramic view of the lake and the Dent du Chat , where one can contemplate swans , ducks , herons , gulls and moorhens.

The esplanade is bounded to the north and to the south by the Grand port and the Petit port respectively, thus constituting the Aix port which is the largest fresh water port in the country with 1, mooring rings, [6] having privileged places for boating on the lake, with boats having a summer or annual allocation.

The festival of yachting takes place each year. This event has old boats coming from all horizons, a professional market, demonstrations and shows. The western shore of the lake is narrower as the mountains along its edge are closer to the lakeshore, although lower than those on the eastern side.

The municipality of Aix-les-Bains is bordered by nine communes. To the north, the municipality adjoins the territory of Brison-Saint-Innocent. Then, to the east, in the continuity of the Aix heights, the commune of Pugny-Chatenod is followed by the commune of Mouxy towards the southeast. Further to the southeast, Aix shares the boundaries of its territory with the neighbouring commune of Drumettaz-Clarafond.

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It follows south to the communes of Viviers-du-Lac and Tresserve. Finally, in the west, there are two communes bordering Aix, across the lake. One of the specific limits of the municipal territory of the commune of Aix-les-Bains, on its western side, is the existence the boundary imposed by the Lac du Bourget. The climate is of the Alpine type, although tempered for the Aix area due to the presence of the lake. The position between two massifs favours the blocking of disturbances that often cause significant rainfall accumulations and even abundant compared to the national average.

Nevertheless, this climate is characterized by summers which are often dry and hot but punctuated by fairly regular storms. Autumns are generally rainy, although a beautiful end to the season is also common. Winters have occurred with some frost , but it is low to moderate. The springtime is normal, with no particular abnormalities and varies from one year to the next. Snow is not present or absent, especially on the shores of the lake.

The water of the Lac du Bourget cools more slowly than the surrounding land, [8] unlike other Savoy communes. Episodes of strong winds are relatively rare. The sunshine is good and fog is infrequent wet or marshy areas around the lake, for example, experience this more regularly. Temperatures, meanwhile, fluctuate, which may allow for a scorching summer and a light winter or, conversely, freshness during passages of summertime rain, and winters with very cold periods.

The table below shows the temperatures and precipitation for the year , along with the record minimum and maximum temperatures up to that date:. The northern branch of the A41 motorway passes to the east of the town, allowing direct access to Annecy and then later, by the continuity of the A40 , into the city of Geneva. Two junctions 13 and 14 serve the commune, one to the south, the other to the north. Aix-les-Bains is also accessible by train. It was one of the earliest European municipalities to host a rail network in its territory when it was administered by the Dukes of Savoie.

The Turin—Lyon high-speed railway will, in the coming years, bring together the cities of Paris , Lyon , Turin and Milan. Aix-Les-Bains station has been a multimodal transport hub [13] since Three low-cost carrier airlines offer regular flights. In , the airport recorded a record attendance with 3, aircraft movements year-round, dealing with more than 10, passengers per weekend, mainly in winter.

In the town centre , the car is the most popular mode of transport in Aix-les-Bains, despite the efforts made by the Association Roue Libre for the development of urban cycling. Traffic at peak hours is particularly difficult, especially in the summer with the influx of tourists. However, traffic has tended to improve with urban development promoting the emergence of roundabouts at the expense of the traffic light, allowing a better flow of traffic. In addition, in the town centre, two car parks can accommodate vehicles, although the number of parking spaces remains low in the town centre for shopping.

For travellers preferring public transport , two main bus routes and sixteen additional routes serve the metropolitan area. It employs 55 people. During the summer, the town is served for short trips by a small train travelling on the roads. It runs between the esplanade of the lake, the beach and town centre.

The life of Aix-les-Bains is located largely on its heights where its downtown, the economic heart, and its thermal baths the National Baths of Chevalley and the Baths of Marlioz are located. Indeed, the history of the town has made it a spa town. Aix was organized around this activity, which was initiated by the Romans.

The lower part of the town, located on the shores of the lake, was abandoned because of the risk of flooding. The land was cultivated and there were fish farms. The economic activity is mainly on the upper part, and the urban morphology has adapted. It had to take into account living space for services racecourse , casino , thermal baths , deluxe hotels , station, hospital and golf , for instance and the surrounding geography.

These boulevards are wide and open unlike the streets of downtown, which are narrower, and the other axes, which can be more constrained because of the proximity of the Massif des Bauges and its winding climbs, meeting the more anarchic requirements of the moment without taking the urban fabric into overall account. With urban expansion and population growth Aix-les-Bains constantly extends, similarly to the neighbouring communes.

The urban morphology of these two local watersheds tends to draw them inexorably closer together. Aix-les-Bains had 11, [21] homes in Few new constructions have been built since that date, and only It further noted that the number of vacant dwellings was quite high in , accounting for This includes 1, of Aix-les-Bains, located in the Sierroz-Franklin neighbourhood among others. Small housing accounts for about one-tenth of Aix housing studios: 9. It should be noted that these accommodations are well staffed and equipped, particularly because of the geographic location at the heart of the Alps , since With the fact that the town is urbanized almost in its entirety, it becomes increasingly more difficult to build larger houses to accommodate families who don't live in the city.

The edge of the lake and the hills are beginning to be saturated where there is a sprawl from the surrounding communities. Several projects of the municipality are underway in the downtown area, on the western shore of the lake as well as mainly to the south. This is to establish new areas of commercial activity to attract new business to the Aix economic area. The establishment of new residential areas is also scheduled. This very controversial project [24] is yet to be launched by the Deputy Mayor Dominique Dord 's municipal team. The rest will be dedicated to pedestrians, cyclists and trees.

This lane will host "high environmental quality" accommodation and nearby businesses that will benefit residents of the neighborhood and buildings under construction. The work amounts to 7 million Euros. The waste transport solution to a specialized treatment center was not successful. The work to the harbour for boats has also brought upheavals to the level of traffic. Petit Port will become a cul-de-sac. The Boulevard du port aux filles will become a one-way street, except for buses. Aix-les-Bains, a city founded in the 1st century AD, is rarely mentioned in the epigraphic texts, and never known by Roman authors.

However, two inscriptions preserved by the Archaeological Museum mention of the Latin Aquae literally: "Waters" cf. Aix-la-Chapelle Aachen or Aix-en-Provence and Aquensis local residents of water , so information is provided about the name of this vicus dependent on the city of Vienne. The historians of the 19th century were sometimes subjected to read fanciful names and without historical foundation that still dot some popular books.

Some texts from the Middle Ages mention of Aquae grationapolis. This suffix simply stating that Aix was part of the diocese of Grenoble. The first known mention of Aix-les-Bains appears in the archives from September , in a letter from a French soldier recuperating at Aix waters.


It is this name which then appears in all official documents, including the deliberations of the municipal council. In the early 19th century, some literary texts made use of the appellation: Aix en Savoie. However, this name has never been used in administrative documents. Since , the railway station of Aix-les-Bains, at the request of the council, has been called Aix-les-Bains-le Revard.

The history of Aix-les-Bains is directly related to the Lac du Bourget and especially to its hot springs which made it a spa among the most renowned in the world. The historical analysis of the town must be closer to the history of the Savoy, if we are to better understand its evolution and its cultural influences. Below are periods and historical highlights of the commune of Aix-les-Bains. Historians agree that Aix was born from its sources of water to Ancient Rome , on the remains of a Celtic habitat. The first occupation of the site has been dated by Alain Canal [28] to the first century BCE, however there is nothing to suggest these remains were a fixed habitat.

We are left with the remains in public institutions and it would be difficult to draw a sketch of ancient Aquae. The administrative situation of the place is known by epigraphy, which teaches us that Aix was, in the 1st century AD, a vicus , with a board of decemlecti a council of ten members , [29] and was administratively part of Vienne. Some citizens lived there with, apparently, quite important resources to offer to the gods, a sacred wood , a vine or to build a funeral arch for the case of the Campanii family.

During their excavations, [30] archaeologists have discovered a large thermal complex, in close proximity to its sources. On a lower terrace, to the west, was the Arch of Campanus , probably built in the 1st century, and more downstream, a second terrace carried the temple said to be dedicated to Diana , which had replaced a more ancient circular edifice by the 2nd century, which was probably contemporary with the Arch of Campanus. Remains of a necropolis have been cleared north of the temple. The Parc des Thermes , and various other locations scattered in the town, contain numerous and very varied remains, such as remains of the necropolis and pottery, etc.

However, there is no centrepiece which would have led to extensive archaeological excavations. Otherwise, we know nothing of the Gallo-Romans of the Aquae vicus, in scope or in the provision of the habitat. Where did the "Romans" live? Where were their farms, the villages of their staff; What were the activities of the vicus? The mystery is still present. The only clues come from the archaeological map of the remains by archaeological services of the DRAC , and for archaeologist Alain Canal to conclude, "Paradoxically, if Aix has delivered many documents illustrating the age of the site and the quality of the monumental town planning from the beginning of the Roman Empire , we have no precise knowledge about the order of this town.

As a synthesis, [31] the history of the period can be reduced to the occupation of the town centre site from the 1st century BCE, followed by a gradual development of the area between the 1st and 2nd centuries. Occupation seems to be made from the progressive construction of the thermal complex, around which radiated monumental buildings presented on a system of terraces, which had evolved several times during the Roman period.

If hot springs were originally the reason for choosing the location, other factors, such as the quality of the site, may have been decisive. The already poor knowledge of Aix history from Roman times is further obscured due to the lack of sources regarding the end of the Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages. We are left to conjecture by studying the destruction from the barbarian invasions that have left traces of fires on Gallo-Roman villas of the area, such as at Arbin.

The fact remains that the Roman Baths of Aix fell to ruins from the fifth century and traces of urban development are lost. Aix-les-Bains is again mentioned in sources from the 9th century, in , and in through charters. In the latter, King Rudolph III of Burgundy donated the villa of Aix, called a royal seat, with its settlers and its slaves to his wife Ermengarde who, in turn, pass them to the bishopric of Grenoble.

Bishop Hugues of Grenoble then donated it to the monastery of Saint-Martin de Miserere, at the beginning of the 12th century. The church erected a new priory under the name of Sainte Marie. At the end of the 12th century, the cartulary of Saint Hugues reveals the existence of two other parishes, Saint-Simond with its church and that of Saint-Hippolyte in the current area of Mouxy also with a small priory. Urban geography begins to clarify: One can imagine the small town, contained in its walls, which nobody knew when was built.

The central point of the town is the priory, near the ancient Roman temple. This centre could also have been the administrative centre since at least the 13th century. A second important village appears, Saint Simond Saint Sigismond with it having a church and a cemetery, established as a parish, and a dependant of Saint-Hippolyte. The texts suggest the existence of other villages including a certified record from , during the general census of the population for the salt tax.

Marlioz having escaped from the sources. At the beginning of the 16th century, the ancient church suffered a devastating fire. He was a seigneurial family member of the town, and was raised to the episcopal dignity. He is also the author of a number of treaties. With support from De Seyssel the people were able to build a collegiate church, with a chapter of twelve canons, commissioned by a dean , whose appointment was returned to the count.

A church was built on the nearby square of the cemetery, which included a choir of flamboyant Gothic style. If the choir belonged to the collegiate church, the nave belonged to the parishioners and presented a more plain appearance. Besides, the poorly constructed roof collapsed in Among the side chapels, one was reserved for the De Seyssels of Aix, in which is buried their dead. The collegiate church, fully a parish church after the Revolution , was demolished in , after the construction of the new church. This church was known to house a relic of the true cross, which had been worshipped from a distance.

The ceiling of the Great Hall of the ground floor is dated to The magnificent staircase of honour was built around On 9 April , a huge fire broke out in the town centre and destroyed 80 homes, nearly half of the town. Reconstruction was made with appeal for subsidies from the king, who imposed an alignment plan whose implementation was entrusted to the engineer Garella. This plan went further than a simple plan of reconstruction since it provided a true alignment of streets, and imposed some rules of urbanism as, for example, the construction of houses of two floors and a ground floor; it also prohibited thatched roofs.

However, it was very limited in its scope since it concerned only the burned area or the main street Rue Albert I , the central square Place Carnot and Rue des Bains. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Aix people and the medical world had begun to become aware of the value of the hot springs of Aix, through the famous writings of the dauphinois physician Jean Baptiste Cabias, who was followed in this area by other renowned doctors.

Indeed, since ancient times the exploitation of sources of hot water had never been completely forgotten.

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Bathing took place in Aix in the Middle Ages and until the end of the 18th century, in the only existing Roman pool, outdoors, or at home where the spa water was brought by hand. This changed the urban distribution of the town centre, since it was necessary to dig a new bed for the Moulins stream, outside the walls.

It is the Duke of Chablais , son of King Victor Amadeus III , to whom Aix owes its renaissance because it was he who, after having tasted the benefit of sources and found it to be poorly housed, suggested the construction of a thermal establishment to the king. It was built from to , under the direction of the engineer, Capellini.

This first thermal establishment became an important factor of development. Throughout this period and until the Revolution, the town hosted a roughly stable number of approximately patients each year, the majority of them French. Consecutively, the population increased, reaching inhabitants in In , to enhance the lives of the patients, the council of the municipality built a landscaped public promenade: le Gigot currently known as Square Alfred Boucher. It was then lined with chestnut trees and was drawn by architect Louis Lampro. Aside from private gardens, this is the first act of urban green space, which gave a boost to the development of the town at this side of the walls, along the road to Geneva.

In the French revolutionary troops, under the command of Montesquiou , were in Savoy. The civilian use of the spa then stalled. The baths were requisitioned by the armies of the Republic, which sent the wounded soldiers for convalescence. However, it was also an opportunity to publicise Aix to the greatest number. Aix became Aix-les-Bains. With the Revolution accomplished, the privileges of the local nobility were abolished, and this especially helped the town from paying the Lord Marquess of Aix the large sum of money which it owed him for the redemption of seigneurial rights the town had no charter of franchise.

Furthermore, freedom of established trade gave new impetus to the creation of an economy based on the exploitation of the springs as soon as peace was regained. Then we see the development of boarding houses, hotels, cabarets and restaurants. On the other hand, the Revolution left its marks on church property, such as the abandonment of the collegiate church, destruction of the bell tower and the church furniture. It was at the lakeside where one could find new development. First frequented by boats refuelling the troops of the army of the Alps, equipped with a military store, it is gradually built for export goods and, in particular, from the trinkets of workshops installed at the edge of the Lake.

It became known as the Port of Puer. The development of this neighbourhood involved improvement of the avenue du lac [avenue of the lake] and all this activity attracted the first buildings along this busy avenue, outside of the centre and of the existing villages.


The negotiations for the independence of Morocco were held in Aix-les-Bains. The negotiations were held in the presence of numerous personalities and French and Moroccan organizations. In addition to these were invited guests, from all walks, capable of giving advice on the status of Morocco and independence. Faithful allies of the protectorate and the Moroccan traditional chiefs were also invited. Thus, they could also negotiate in the presence of the parties concerned.

They were given precedence, if possible, to the disappointment of the Istiqlal Party. Although these negotiations held in Aix-les-Bains played an important role in the march towards the independence of Morocco, the fact remains that France had previously taken care to largely prepare for this transition.

Indeed, the French State was convinced of the need to allow independence to this North African territory. However, with many economic interests at stake and many business relationships, notably the pashas and qaids , pushed France to take care not to rush this transition and initiate this change, smoothly. The destiny of the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Morocco was drawn during this conference at Aix-les-Bains.

Officially, negotiations made it possible to reach an agreement to give birth to an independent state.

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Morocco was finally proclaimed independent during the declaration of La Celle-Saint-Cloud on 6 November In , there was the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the negotiation of the agreements of the independence of Morocco. For this occasion, a fountain with a pool was made in Moroccan zellige. The project was supported by the regional council of tourism of the city of Fez Fez-CRT and the tourist office.

Since the departmental elections in , Aix-les-Bains is divided into two cantons , both involving other communes. It is bounded by the redistricting law No. The town hall of Aix-les-Bains has implemented three secondary offices for the town. These are a relay for the main services of the town. One can perform many administrative procedures but also requests for support and information. These decentralized local structures allow the dissemination of information on municipal projects as well as the future projects where the inhabitants can, if necessary, have the opportunity to be able to express their opinion.

Politically, Aix-les-Bains is a town of the right , the electors have voted mostly right for municipal elections since Similarly, Robert Barrier was a man of the centre-right. However, in the years —, the city was the stronghold of the left in Savoy, carried by the workers in the Aix area. These figures were not consistent with the national trend, it being in opposition.

This vote demonstrated the privileged nature of the inhabitants of the town compared to rural departments with significant pools of workers. The electorate had chosen the positive vote being due to having, according to political analysts, a more privileged population economically and a higher educational level. At the French Presidential Election , the first round of voting [46] saw Nicolas Sarkozy arrive in the lead with In the second round, [46] the electors voted at For this presidential election, the turnout rate was very high.

There were 19, registered voters on electoral lists in Aix, The regional elections in resulted in a gathering of the left and environmentalists in the lead The Aix-les-Bains municipal council , as well as the municipal team, is composed of a mayor , ten deputy mayors, seven adviser delegates and seven other charges from missions to the deputy mayors. To a greater extent, one can also count a random number of delegates of the municipal council from government agencies.

Here is the share of the seats on the municipal council of Aix-les-Bains: [48]. In the communal elections of March , the participation rate for the first and only round of voting was low, with only Of the 20, registered on electoral lists, 11, people voted and 11, voters spoke. The outgoing mayor Dominique Dord , topped the list Une ville d'avance [A town in advance], was re-elected with an absolute majority of He was followed by the Various Left candidate Fabrice Maucci, head of the Aix avenir:durable, solidaire, exemplaire [Aix future: sustainable, solidarity, exemplary] list, who collected In October , Dominique Dord resigned from his position of mayor and Renaud Beretti, his deputy, replaced him.

Many motor vehicles of the time were also highly polluting, spitting their fumes which partially dissolved in the waters and spilt oil which was also found in the lake.

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They made a lot of noise and noise generated was damaging to birds and small mammals. A remediation action has been engaged since the mids, in order to reduce the eutrophication of the lake, the aim being to arrive at the same results as for Lake Annecy. Services of water treatment stations have been established in Savoy and in particular to Aix-les-Bains. Aix-les-Bains has a public aquarium for the conservation of local species such as trout , Arctic char and carp. This establishment mainly specialises in freshwater fish. The city also offers trails marked and arranged allowing hikers to travel in the direction of Mont Revard.

These courses are especially popular to athletes, walkers and bicycle enthusiasts.

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These paths are regularly maintained, eliminating the spread of detritus in green spaces. Here there are also many trails. The desire was to create a forest here without pomp, where nature evolves freely. Many events are held at Aix-les-Bains. Between 27—29 September the first national water meeting was organized. The municipality wanted to, through organised days, [54] increase the exchange of information and experiences for greater synergy in the field of preservation and protection of water.

It also created and published the Charter of Environmental Quality and Accessibility at construction sites. Aix-les-Bains is twinned with several other foreign cities. Twinning is a relationship between two cities in different countries which is reflected in socio-cultural exchanges.

Aix-les-Bains is twinned with:. The demographic trend in the Aix area tends to an aging population and a high proportion of single people. Changes in the age structure of the city of Aix-les-Bains, comparison between and [56]. The total number of households in Aix is 11, These households are not all equal in numbers of individuals.

Some of these households contain one, others two, three, four, five or even more than six people. Here below, is the data as a percentage of the distribution of these households, compared to the total number of households. In , the town was ranked nd nationally [58] and then in it passed to the nd position in national ranking. Its growth is therefore constantly increasing and yet is expected to accelerate in the coming years due to the increase of the birth rate and by the decrease in the mortality rate recorded in recent years thanks to medical advances and improvement in the standard of living.

Its net migration for the period was positive since it was valued at over inhabitants placing Aix at th position in the national rank. The natural balance for the same period was an increase of inhabitants and a total annual variation in population of 0. Also, the Boncelin public primary school. In the private sector, but under contract, there is the Gazouillis kindergarten and the primary schools of Lamartine and St.

There are three private colleges under contract namely Lamartine Catholic college, the la Ribambelle college and the Talmudic college. Several festivals are organised in the town of Aix-les-Bains, with the following being the most significant:. Each year, other events also take place in the Aix area such as: [62]. It is ranked 16th in the national rank [66] for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. There is also the Gustav Zander Centre for functional rehabilitation and care. This is an independent private clinic. Its capacity is 40 beds of complete hospitalisation, with forty day case places.

The specialties of this centre are, primarily, for functional rehabilitation and motor rehabilitation, traumatology , orthopedics , neurology and cardio-vascular diseases. This extension was expected to be operational in It has a capacity of eighty-four beds and places of which seventy-five are surgical beds and nine outpatient surgery places. This clinic is for specialty surgery and is particularly present in the practice of anaesthesia - resuscitation , gynecological surgery, maxillofacial surgery, plastic and aesthetics, orthopaedic surgery, upper limb orthopaedic surgery and surgery of the hand, surgery of the spine - neurosurgery, vascular, and thoracic surgery, urologic Surgery and, finally, visceral surgery.

A renowned spa town , the thermalistes institutions of the town must be mentioned [70] many of which provide medical care. The Thermes Chevalley of Aix-les-Bains, found in this area, specialises in rheumatology and phlebology.